June 22
Neolithic Advances

 

 

 

Woman of Willendorf and the Venus of Lespuge,
Mammoth ivory, Height 7 13/16".
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 7th ed., 255.
Woman from Brassempouy, France. c. 30,000 BCE. Ivory, height 1 1/4".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Womanly form in Chauvet Cave

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Ice Age ended so gradually and unevenly among regions. Prehistoric people responded to new climactic conditions with new hunting technologies and adaptations.
The earliest Neolithic cultures found date around 7000 BCE and have been found in the fertile crescent
The new environment led to a more sedentary way of life. (Stokstad 12 & 13)
 
Shift from hunting to husbandry
People began to live in large groups
Domestication of animals and development of farming
Building of permanent dwellings
Early development of written language
 
When determining neolithic onset in a region, archaeologists look for signs of:
An organized system of agriculture
The maintenance of herds of animals
Permanent, year-round settlements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paleolithic
Neolithic
 

Lion Human

  • Along with the shift from hunting to husbandry came changes in representation
  • Paleolithic tends to be more realistic & neolithic more abstract
  • Neolithic art is generally utilitarian and becomes increasingly larger
  • Humans rarely depicted in paleolithic
  • Neolithic works often suggest spiritual practice
Lion-Human. c. 30,000 - 26,000 BCE. Mammoth ivory, height 11 5/8".
Woman from Cernavoda, Romania. c. 3500 BCE. Ceramic, height 4 1/2".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farming required new tools
Tools for grinding, cutting, and chopping
Pottery for storage
Neolithic people used wood and other perishable materials much more
 
Neolithic Chinese Pot  c. 3500 BC
http://www.albertomanuelcheung.com/Neolithic%20Machiayao%20Jar.htm
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Burial Urn. Kansu type. China. c. 2000 BCE. Earthenware. Height 14 1/8"
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 7th ed., 255.

Evolution of writing

Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 7th ed., 255.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Skara Brae

Aerial view of Skara Brae site, Orkney Islands, Scotland. c. 3100 - 2600 BCE.
http://www1.livefortheoutdoors.com/News-Landing/Search-Results/Outdoor-headlines/Looking-for-Scotlands-favourite-place-Here-it-is/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Skara Brae dwelling interior, Orkney Islands, Scotland. c. 3100 - 2600 BCE.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_XwyeQ1bMtKQ/S_0YFlplHnI/AAAAAAAAADE/F_rv2sKXZL0/s1600/Skara+Brae+trip+042+(Medium).jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

corbeling = rows or layers of stone laid with the end of each row projecting beyond the row beneath, progressing until layers almost meet and can be capped with a stone that rests on both layers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Neolithic wall and tower, Jericho, Jordan. c. 7000 BC

 

Sun-Dried brick wall 5 feet thick and nearly 20 feet tall. Stone tower was 28 feet tall.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neolithic plastered skull, from Jericho. c. 7000 BC. Lifesize.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Catal Huyuk (Chat-al Hoo-yook)

Artist's rendering of Catal Huyuk, Anatolia (present-day Turkey). c. 6500 - 5500 BCE.
http://leavingbabylon.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/catal2.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schematic reconstruction of a section of level VI, Catal Huyuk, c. 6000 - 5900 BC
Image: Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, Gardner's Art Through the Ages. (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1996) Tenth ed., 37.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shrine at Catal Huyuk. c. 6000 - 5500 BC.E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hall of the Bulls, Lascaux Cave, Dordogne, France. c. 15,000 BCE.
Animal Hunt, Shrine A.III.I, Catal Huyuk. c. 6000 BC.E

 

 

 

Mysteries of Catal Huyuk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dancing Hunter at Catal Huyuk.
c. 6000 - 5500 BC.
E
View of Town and Volcano. Wall painting, Shrine VII.14, Catal Huyuk. c. 6000 BC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Woman of Catal Huyuk. c. 6000 BCE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Megalithic Monuments

 

menhirs = simplest megalithic form, unpright slabs that served as grave markers
Kerloas Menhir, France. c. 6500 BCE. Height 33 feet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kerloas_menhir.JPG

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

dolmens = tombs resembling "houses of the dead," the walls are upright stones and the roof is a single giant slab
Lancken-Granitz dolmen, Germany. Neolithic period.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cromlechs = a circle of large upright stones, or Dolmens
Din Ligwy Cromlech. c. 5000 BCE. Anglessey, Wales.
http://www.anglesey.info/din-lligwy-burial-chamber.htm


 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Stonehenge

Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain (Wiltshire), England. c. 2000 BC. Diameter of circle 97'.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stonehenge, England. c. 2000 BC.

 

 

post-and-lintel = architectural system of construcion with two or more vertical elements (posts) supporting a horizontal element (lintel)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stonehenge (aerial view), Salisbury Plain (Wiltshire), England. c. 2000 BC. Diameter of circle 97'.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain (Wiltshire), England at sunset. c. 2000 BC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram of original arrangement of stones at Stonehenge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Community Destinations
#1 Paleolithic Painters
#11 Saber Toothed Tigers
#2 Paleolithic Sculptors
#12 Dead Men
#3 Paleolithic Stencilers
#13 Teen Robots
#4 Paleolithic Engravers
#14 Amateur Speleologists
#5 Hunters
# 15 Arrow Hunters
#6 Gatherers
#16 Neolithic Agrarians
#7 Shamans
#17 Neolithic Scribes
   
#8 Wounded Bisons
#18 Post and Lintel Builders
#9 Bulls
#19 Cromlech Builders
#10 Cave Bears
#20 Bronze Age Metalsmiths