November 16
Modernism

 

Exam #1 and #2 Results
 
 
Number of students earning grade
Exam #1
Exam #2
A
50 - 45 points
8
6
B
44 - 40 points
3
4
C
39 - 35 points
1
4
D
34 - 30 points
2
1
F
29 - 0 points
5
2
 
Highest score
50
50
Lowest score
13
29

 

 

Saturday, November 17, 4 pm to 7 pm
Girly Show artist Kathleen Rogan will  discuss her work in relation to the theme of protest.  Her talk will be followed by a screening of Art 21 season 4 episode - Protest and a Q &A session led by the Chaffey Art Organization.
 
Earn 15 points extra credit for your participation

 

 

 

 

"I had wrung Impressionism dry, and I finally came to the conclusion that I knew neither how to paint nor how to draw. In a word, Impressionism was a blind alley, as far as I was concerned." - Renoir

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Impressionsim
1885 - 1900

 

Post-impressionism = general term applied to various personal styles of painting that developed as a reaction against the formless and aloof quality of Impressionism.
Post-Impressionists developed very personal styles
Artists begin to focus on individual expression
General move towards complete abstraction

 

 

 

 

 

 

Starry Night

Vincent van Gogh. The Starry Night. 1889.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Large Bathers

Paul Cezanne. The Large Bathers. 1906.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camille Claudel
1856 -1920

 

Camille Claudel.  Auguste Rodin.  1892.
Nancy G. Heller.  Women Artists: An Ilustrated History. Fourth edition.  New York: Abbeville Press, 2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward Steichen. Auguste Rodin. 1903.
Hirsch, Robert. Seizing the Light: A History of Photography. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2000.

 

 

 

 

 

The Waltz

Camille Claudel. The Waltz. 1895.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Auguste Rodin.  The Kiss.  1901 -04.
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

 

Claudel and Rodin exhibition

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camille Claudel. The Ages of Life. 1899 - 1913.
http://www.pbase.com/gilbert/image/3117583

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camille Claudel.  Vertumne et Pomone.  1884.

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
   
1900 Freud publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams"
1903 Wright brother's first flight
1905 Einstein formulates theory of relativity
1912 Titanic sinks
1914 Henry Ford's Model-T plant opens
1920 Women gain the right to vote in America
 

First Miss America pageant

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prismes Isotiques

Sonia Delaunay. Electric Prisms. 1914.
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

Characteristics of 20th century art are the characteristics of the century itself:
Rapid change
Diversity
Individualism
Exploration
 

 

 

 

 

Several broad tendencies mark modern art:
Tendency towards abstraction
Tendency to emphasize physical process involved in creation of the work
Continual questioning of the nature of art

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexandra Exter.  The Boat and the Town.  1925.

 
Some of the "Isms" of Modern Art
Expressionism
Cubism
Dadaism
Surrealism
Abstract Expressionism
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the transition from the old guard to the avant-garde, women artists played active roles as they challenged the limits of tradition

 

The Abandoned Doll

Suzanne Valadon. The Abandoned Doll. 1921.
Sterling, Susan Fisher. Women Artists: The National Museum of Women in the Arts. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1995.

 

 

 

 

By 1893 a new female heroine emerged in the popular imagination called "The New Woman"
 
She rejects convention by:
Drinking
Smoking
Reading and pursuing an education
Having a healthy, athletic lifestyle
Dressing in comfortable clothes that allow her to move freely
Deciding when, whom and if to marry
Deciding how to earn money and how to spend it

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frances Benjamin Johnson. Self-Portrait. c. 1896.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Frances_Benjamin_Johnston,_full-length_portrait,_seated_in_front_of_fireplace,_1896.jpg/481px-Frances_Benjamin_Johnston,_full-length_portrait,_seated_in_front_of_fireplace,_1896.jpg
Albert Morrow. The New Woman. 1897.

 

 

The New Woman website

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicole Cawlfield.  Maria Buszek Bluestocking.  2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Woman with the Hat

Henri Matisse. The Woman with the Hat. 1905.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paula Modersohn-Becker
1876 - 1907

 

Paula Modersohn-Becker. Self-Portrait with Amber Necklace. 1906.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

Expressionism =
1. general term for art that emphasizes inner feelings and emotions over objective depiction
2. a modernist art movement that was a manifestation of subjective feeling toward objective reality and the world of imagination. Characterized by bold, vigorous brushwork, emphatic line, and bright color.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paula Modersohn-Becker. Mother and Child Lying Nude. 1907.
http://www.bluffton.edu/womenartists/ch10(20c)/modersohnnursing.jpg

 
Expressionist characteristics in Becker's work:
 
Desire to express personal attitudes and emotions
Vivid imagery
Simplified shapes
Dramatic use of color
Bold, sometimes crude brushwork
Sense of liberation and experimentation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sofonisba Anguissola. Self-portrait. 1561.
Paula Modersohn-Becker. Self-Portrait with Amber Necklace. 1906.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paula Modersohn-Becker. Kneeling Mother and Child. 1907.
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/m/p-modersohn2.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gabriele Munter
1877 - 1962

 

Gabriele Munter.  Black Mask with Rose.  1912.
Nancy G. Heller.  Women Artists: An Ilustrated History. Fourth edition.  New York: Abbeville Press, 2003.

 

 

impasto = painting technique in which paint is applied thickley and in a manner that draws attention to the gesture

 

 

 

 

 

 

Improvisation No. 30

Vassily Kandinsky. Improvisation No. 30 (Cannons). 1913.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

Blue Rider Group

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boating

Gabriele Munter. Boating. 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cubism
1908 - 1914

 

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles D'Avignon. 1907.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles D'Avignon. 1907.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 
 
 
Basic objective of Cubism was to depict three-dimensional objects from all sides at once
To represent an object as the mind sees it rather than as the eye sees it
 
 
Traditional subject - new approach
No perspective or illusionism
No chiaroscuro
No story to validate the subject
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type of Women
Les Demoiselles D'Avignon
Edmond Fortier. Type of Women, West Africa. 1906.
Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles D'Avignon. 1907.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sonia Delaunay
1885 - 1979

 

Sonia Delaunay. Couverture. 1911. Appliqued fabric.
Grosenick, Uta ed. Women Artists in the 20th and 21st Century. Taschen, Koln. 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sonia Delaunay. Bal Bullier. 1913. Oil on mattress ticking.  38 1/8" X 12'8".
http://site.voila.fr/lucien.duguey/DossierNouveau/Sonia1.JPG

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sonia and Citroen

Sonia Delaunay. Clothes and customized Citroen B-12. 1925.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
 
1913 - 1933 German Weimar Republic
1914 - 1918 World War I
1917 - 1920 Russian Revolution
1922 Formation of the Soviet Union
  Fascists under Benito Mussolini seize power in Italy
1926 - 1953 Stalin gains control the Soviet Union
1929 Great Depression begins
 

 

 

 

 

 

Kathe Kollwitz
1867 - 1945

 

Kathe Kollwitz. Self-Portrait. 1934.
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kathe Kollwitz. "Attack," The Weaver's Revolt. 1895 - 97.

 

 

"I beg you, gentlemen, a medal for a woman, that would really be going too far... Orders and medals of honor belong on the breasts of worthy men!" - Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1898

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kathe Kollwitz. Death Seizing a Woman. 1934.
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

 

Recurring themes in Kollwitz's work:
Misery of impoverished working classes
Omnipresence of death
Sympathy with armed revolt to improve inhumane conditions

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kathe Kollwitz.  Outbreak.  1903.
http://windshoes.new21.org/art-gallery/kollwitz/f3_1.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Downtrodden

Kathe Kollwitz. The Downtrodden. 1900.
Sterling, Susan Fisher. Women Artists: The National Museum of Women in the Arts. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1995.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kathe Kollwitz. The Prisoners. 1908.
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dadaism
1916 - 1923

 

Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. Militarism. 1924. Photomontage.
20th Century Photography: Museum Ludwig Cologne. Koln: Taschen, 2005.

 

"While the thunder of guns rolled in the distance, we sang, painted, glued and composed for all our worth. We are seeking an art that would heal mankind from the madness of the age."- Jean Arp

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fountain

Marcel Duchamp. Fountain. 1917.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

Readymade = an object from popular or material culture presented without further manipulation as an artwork by the artist

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marcel Duchamp.  L.H.O.O.Q.  1919/ 1930.  Pencil on postcard reproduction of the Mona Lisa.
Elger, Dietmar.  Dadaism.  Koln: Taschen, 2004.

 

 

the letters, L, H, O, O, Q, when pronounced in French sound like "Elle a chaud au cul" = "She has a hot ass"

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hannah Hoch
1889 - 1978

 

"It was not very easy for a woman to impose herself as a modern artist in Germany...Most of our male colleagues continued for a long time to look upon us as charming and gifted amateurs, denying us implicitly any real professional status." - Hannah Hoch
 
"They all wanted this 'new woman' and her groundbreaking will to freedom. But they more or less brutally rejected the notion that they, too, had to adopt new attitudes." - Hannah Hoch on the male Dadaists

 

 

 

 

Cut with the Kitchen Knife

Hannah Hoch. Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany. 1919-20.
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

 

 

Photomontage = a photographic collage that is photographed so that the final image is converted back into a photographic print

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cut with the Kitchen Knife

Hannah Hoch. Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany. 1919-20.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

 
Hannah Hoch organizes the photomontage into four quadrants:
Upper right = Anti Dada world
Lower right = The Great Dada World
Upper left = "Dada" springs from Einstein's head
Lower left = figure demands that the masses join Dada
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Female Dancer

Hannah Hoch. Indian Female Dancer (From an Ethnographic Museum). 1930.
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hannah Hoch.  The Beautiful Girl.  1920.
http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Museum/2042/fotos/hoch.jpg