June 11
The Invention of Photography

 

 

Joseph Nicephore Niepce. View from His Window at Le Gras. c. 1826. Heliograph.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerre

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

The Diorama

 

 

 

 

 

 

1829 Daguerre and Niepce agree to share all knowledge, honor and profit from their collaborative invention

Niepce and Daguerre
http://gemini.msu.montana.edu/~photohst/mta303/notes/niepce-and-daguerre.jpg

1831 Daguerre discovered that silver iodide was light sensitive
1833 Niepece died of a stroke
1834 Daguerre began experiementing with new process
  Used professional camera with quality lens
  Used silver-plated sheet of copper sensitized with silver iodide
  Reduced exposure time to 20 to 30 minutes
1835 Daguerre succeeds in permanently fixing an image

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerre's new process:

The Artist's Studio

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. Still Life in Studio. 1837. Daguerreotype.
Richard G. Tansey & Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Tenth ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1996, p. 959.

Used silver-plated sheet of copper
Placed silver side down over box containing iodine
Iodine fumes reacted with the silver to create light sensitive silver iodide on the surface of the plate
Exposed the plate in a camera obscura for several hours
  No image visible afterwards
Exposed plate to fumes from heated mercury
Image became visible
Plate bathed in strong solution of table salt
Halted the light sensitivity of the silver iodide
Plate washed in water

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le Boulevard du Temple

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. Le Boulevard Du Temple. c. 1837. Daguerreotype.
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le Boulevard du Temple

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. Le Boulevard Du Temple.
c. 1837. Daguerreotype.

Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

Attributed to Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. Daguerreotype of M. Huet?. 1837.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sir John Frederick William Herschel provides the final element necessary when he discovers that hyposulphite of soda will arrest the action of light, making photographic images permanent

Julia Margaret Cameron.  Sir John Frederick William Herschel.  1867.

hyposulphite of soda acts as a fixer, removing unexposed silver halide, and therefore preventing any further reaction of the silver salts
 
 
 
Later coins the term photography = light writing
and applies the terms "positive" and "negative"
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hippolyte Bayard.  Plaster Casts.  c. 1839. 
Direct paper positive.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1982.

1838
Daguerre hires Count Francois Arago, Secretary of the Academy of Sciences, to promote his invention and secure copyright from French government
1839
Hippolyte Bayard creates direct positives on sensitized paper
Exposes paper with silver chloride emulsion to light
Soaks paper in potassium iodide
Exposes paper in camera obscura for about 12 minutes
Washes paper in bath of hyposulphite of soda
Bayard shows examples of his direct positive prints to Count Arago
Arago pressures Bayard not to publish the results of his experiments
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 9, 1839
Arago announces Daguerre's process to a joint session of the Academy of Science and the Academy of Fine Art

Count Francois Arago
http://hsci.ou.edu/images/jpg-100dpi-5in//19thCentury/Arago/Portraits/Arago-Delpech-lpc-det2.jpg

August 19, 1839
Daguerre's process is announced to the public and Daguerre receives French patent on his process
Daguerre receives lifetime pension from French government
Daguerre applies for English patent on the process
Daguerre claims full credit for the invention (Niepce goes unrecognized for years)
Niepce's son has to sue the government for compensation for his part in Daguerre's process

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Henry Fox Talbot. Botanical Specimen. 1839. Photogenic drawing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre.  Triptych with three daguerreotypes presented to King Ludwig I of Bavaria.  1839.
Koetzle, Hans-Michael. Photo Icons: The Story Behind the Pictures. Volume 1. Koln: Taschen, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Propylea

Pierre Gusttave Joly de Ltbiniere. The Propylaea at Athens. Aquatint engraving from a daguerreotype. 1839.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1982.

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 1839 Bayard exhibits 30 of his direct positive prints in Paris
  First public exhibition of photographic images
  Bayard is given small cash award by French government

 

 

Self-portrait as Drowned Man

Hippolyte Bayard. Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man. 1840. Direct paper positive.

 

 

"The corpse you see is that of M. Bayard… The Academy, the King and all those who have seen his pictures admired them, just as you do… This has brought him prestige, but not a penny. The government, which has supported M. Daguerre more than is necessary, declared it could do nothing for M. Bayard, and the unhappy man drowned himself…he has been at the morgue for several days, and no one has recognized him. Ladies and gentlemen, you'd better pass along for fear of offending your sense of smell, for as you can observe, the face and hands of the gentleman are beginning to decay." - Hippolyte Bayard

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype process

William Pratt.  Edgar Allan Poe.  1849.
http://www.poestories.com/images/gallery/pratt_dtype01.jpg

 
The daguerreotype, "the mirror with a memory."
- Oliver Wendell Holmes
 
Properties of the daguerreotype:
Mirror view of the original scene
Shiny, mirror-like surface

Very delicate, one-of-a-kind direct positive image

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerre's first camera
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

Daguerreotype drawbacks :
Long exposure time
Beyond the average person's means
Cameras were large and cumbersome

 

 

 

 

 

 

By the end of 1840 three major improvements made:
Cameras manufactured with better quality lens
More light-sensitive plates developed
Enriched tones of daguerreotype image with gilding

 

 

 

 

 

 

construction of a daguerreotype

Construction of a daguerreotype: hinged, velvet-lined case, plate, frame, matte, and glass.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype Mania

 

Theodore Maurisset. Fantasies: La Daguerreotypemanie. 1839.

1840
First commercial daguerreotype studios open in New York and Paris
1841
First studios in London
1860s
200 studios in New York and 400 in Paris
1865
284 studios in London

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dagnan-Bouveret. Wedding at the Photographer's. 1879.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype apparatus

Daguerreotype studio apparatus
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

Jenny Lind Headrest.  1851.
http://www.dagazine.com/mi/exhibit/setup/Awaiting03-05.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper

John Draper. Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper. c. 1840. Daguerreotype.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Samuel Morse introduces the daguerreotype to the US in early 1840s
 
"The American Process"
Reduced exposure time to under a minute
Used cheaper chemicals

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait Galleries

 

Nadar's Portrait Studio on the Boulevard des Capucines. 1860.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait Gallery

A. Berghaus. M. B. Brady's New Photographic Gallery, Corner of Broadway and Tenth Street, New York. 1861. Engraving.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Southworth and Hawes Portrait

Southworth and Hawes. Rollin Heber Neal (Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Boston). c. 1850. Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Draper. Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper.  c.1840. Daguerreotype.

Southworth and Hawes. Rollin Heber Neal (Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Boston). c. 1850. Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Southworth and Hawes.  Young Girl.  c. 1850.  Daguerreotype.
http://museum.icp.org/museum/exhibitions/southworth_hawes/images/pic_portrait_02.jpg

 

More Southworth and Hawes images

 

 

 

 

 

Picture Factories

 

Behind the scenes in a picture factory.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype Saloons

 

Isaac Wallace Baker in front of Batchelder's  Daguerrian Saloon in Oakland, CA. c. 1851
http://www.daguerre.org/gallery/oakland/ca_intro.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype saloon. c. 1850.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The blossoming popularity and accessibility of the daguerreotype greatly influenced the emergence of new classes of image makers, which then encouraged the development of new classes of images...

 

 

Occupation Portraits

 

Family Vegetable Woman

Carl Ferdinand Stelzner. Mother Albers, The Family Vegetable Woman. c. 1845. Daguerreotype.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

 

 

More occupational daguerreotypes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vacation Pictures

 

Platt D. Babbitt. Tourists Viewing Niagara Falls from Prospect Point. c. 1855.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Mortem Portraits

 

Post-Mortem Portrait

Unknown Photographer. Post-Mortem Portrait, Woman Holding Baby. c. 1855. Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photographer Unknown. Father and Mother Holding a Dead Child.  c. 1850 - 1860s.  Daguerreotype.
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pornography

 

Unknown. Two Nude Women Embracing .  c. 1848.  Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eugene Durieu.  Academie de l'Album Delacroix reunissant.  1853 - 54.  Paper print.
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Henry Fox Talbot
1800 - 1877

 

William Henry Fox Talbot

William Henry Fox Talbot. c. 1844. Daguerreotype.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Henry Fox Talbot. Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey. 1835. Photogenic drawing.
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enhanced view of Talbot's window
http://www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk/studentwebs/session2/group60/history.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photogenic drawing

William Henry Fox Talbot. 1837. Photogenic Drawing.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Talbot produced the first successful negative on paper in 1835
 
 
Calotype process:
Soaked paper in a solution of sodium chloride, then a solution of silver nitrate
Repeated process several times to create a dense concentration of chemicals
Exposed wet sheet of iodized paper to light  
(cutting exposure time from 1 hour to 10 minutes)
Image fixed with either potassium iodide or sodium chloride

 

 

In the following years, Talbot discovered that an invisible, "latent image" could be developed with gallic acid
Began coating paper with wax to make it more translucent
Negative was contact printed onto another sheet of sesnsitized paper

 

 

 

 

 

 

the calotype established a negative/ positive printmaking system
1. Negative image produced by exposing light-sensitive paper
2. Positive image produced by contact printing onto another piece of paper
 
Negative Image
Positive Image
David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson. Lady Elizabeth Eastlake. c. 1845.  Calotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Southworth and Hawes. Rollin Heber Neal (Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Boston). c. 1850. Daguerreotype.

William Henry Fox Talbot.  Man and Woman sitting on garden wall in Lacock Abbey.  1835. Reproduction of calotype image.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotyp vs. Calotype
 
Daguerreotype
Calotype
Surface
Mirror-like
Matte
Highly detailed
Creates contrast and mass
Process
One step
Two step
Exposure time
Few seconds
Few minutes
Reproducibiltiy
Produced one-of-a-kind image
Produced infinite number of copies
Sturdiness
Fragile
Hardy
Price
Somewhat expensive if done at high quality studio
Relatively inexpensive
Inventors
Experienced businessman
Scientist and intellectual

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Pencil of Nature = first book to include photographic images

 

 

Talbot's printing operation. c. 1845.

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Fox Talbot. The Open Door. 1843. Salted paper print from calotype negative.
http://robtaborn.homestead.com/BroomTalbot.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanticism
 

William Henry Fox Talbot. The Game Keeper. c. 1843.

 
 
 
picturesque = suggesting a painted scene, quaint, charming and favoring the emotional experience
 
 
 
sublime = lofty, grand or exalted in thought, expression or manner; of outstanding spiritual, intellectual or moral worth; tending to inspire awe
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Vampire

Charles Negre. The Vampire. 1853. Salted paper print.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salted paper:

Roger Fenton.  Wharfe and Pool, Below the Strid.  1854.  Salted paper print.
http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2004/fenton/images/fenton_ssa_fs.jpg

Soaked in salt concentration
Coated on one side with silver nitrate
Dried
Contact printed with negative image

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wet-Collodion Process

collodion process

Preparing and processing a collodion wet-plate

1848 Frederick Scott Archer exposes iodized collodion while it is wet
 
collodion (pyroxylin) = a mixture of cellulose nitrates that is less explosive than guncotton, soluble in a mixture of organic solvents, and used especially in making plastics, coatings such as lacquers, as a coating for wonds or for photographic films

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sally Mann.  Last Light .  1989.
Mann, Sally.  Immediate Family.  New York:  Aperture, 1992.