June 18
Imaging the Other

 

 

Duchenne de Boulogne
1806 - 1875

 

Study of muscles in the face and emotion

Duchenne de Boulogne. Study of muscles in the face and emotion. 1852-56.
Koetzle, Hans-Michael. Photo Icons:  The Story Behind the Pictures . Volume 1.  Koln: Taschen, 2002.  2 vols.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Study of muscles in the face and emotion

Duchenne de Boulogne. Study of muscles in the face and emotion. 1852-56.
Koetzle, Hans-Michael. Photo Icons:  The Story Behind the Pictures . Volume 1.  Koln: Taschen, 2002.  2 vols.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Study of muscles in the face and emotion

Duchenne de Boulogne. Study of muscles in the face and emotion. 1852-56.
Koetzle, Hans-Michael. Photo Icons:  The Story Behind the Pictures . Volume 1.  Koln: Taschen, 2002.  2 vols.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Hugh Welch Diamond
1809 - 1886

 

Dr. Hugh Welch Diamond. Mental Patient. 1855.

Diamond believed that photographs could be useful aides in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness
Sought the physical symptoms of madness
The project expresses a belief in
"normal" vs. "abnormal" character
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seated Woman with Bird

Hugh Welch Diamond.  Seated Woman with Bird.  c. 1855. 
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

"The picture speaks for itself."  Dr. Hugh Welch Diamond
 
transparency = a direct translation of reality in which subjects are not suggested, as in the calotype and daguerreotype, but are clearly stated and defined without overt intervention
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Martin Charcot
1825 - 1893

 

Charcot Hysteric

Photographer Unknown.  Attitudes Passionelles plate 21 from Charcot’s P’lconographie photographique de La Salpetriere.  1876.
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andre Brouillet.  Charcot demonstrating hysteria at La Salpetrie.  1887.
http://www.mskidsweb.nl/imguser/content/f4fgesch-charcot.jpg

Charcot used hypnosis to induce a state of hysteria in patients believing that hysteria was a neurological disorder
Made weekly public presentations of his patients who would act out the symptoms of mental illness
 
"I stand here merely as a photographer, I write down what I see."  - Charcot

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Martin Charcot.  Hysteria induced epileptic seizures.  1878.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photographer Unknown.  Attitudes Passionelles from Charcot’s P’lconographie photographique de La Salpetriere.  1876.
http://www.imageandnarrative.be/gender/_img/devilliers02.jpg

 

more on Charcot and photography

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fire in the Ames Mills

George N. Barnard.  Fire in the Ames Mills, Oswego, NY.  July 5, 1853.
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexican-American War
1846 - 1848
 
Fought after Texas seceded from Mexico
Resulted in the U.S. acquisition of California and New Mexico
Considered the first war to be photographed as it happened
Coincides with the rise of American newspapers

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Wool

Photographer Unknown.  General Wool and Staff, Calle Real, Saltillo, Mexico.  c. 1847.
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photographaer Unknown.  Amputation, Mexican- American War, Cerro Gordo.  1847.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crimean War
1853 - 1856
 
Fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance of the United Kingdom, France and the Ottoman Empire

 

Roger Fenton.  The 57th Regiment.  1855.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1982.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The "Photographic Van"
http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3g00000/3g09000/3g09200/3g09240v.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Railroad Yard

Roger Fenton. Railroad Yard Balaclava #2. 1855.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1982.

 

More of Fenton's Crimean War photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

Death of General Warren

John Trumbull. The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker's Hill, June 17, 1775. 1786.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Whatever he represents from the field must be real." - London Times

 

The Valley of the Shadow of Death

Roger Fenton. The Valley of the Shadow of Death. 1855.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carnage at Antietam

Alexander Gardner. Carnage at Antietam, September 1862.
Richard G. Tansey & Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Tenth ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1996.

Civil War
1861 - 1865
 
Conflict between northern and southern states
Involved numerous disputes, although most of them centered on the issue of slavery
At least 623,000 killed
 
More than 300 photographers documented the battle zones

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mathew Brady
1823 - 1896

 

Mathew Brady's Gallery of Illustrious Americans

Burial Party

John Reekie. A Burial Party, Cold Harbor, VA. 1865.

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Barnard.  Destruction of Hood's Ordinance Train, Atlanta.  1864.

 

more Civil War photos from Brady's corps

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Gardner
1821 - 1882

 

Alexander Gardner and his portable dark room.  1867.
http://z.about.com/d/712educators/1/0/t/9/misc5.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Home of the Rebel Sharpshooter

Alexander Gardner. Home of the Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg. 1863.
http://www.littlestregular.com/blog/uploaded_images/sharpshooter-752249.jpg

 

 

"If a studio photographer's duty was to arrange the sitter for a specific effect, and if the resulting image was considered reality, then where were the boundaries of truthfulness when a photographer went outside the studio?" - Robert Hirsch

 

 

 

 

 

 

Was Mathew Brady's effort to document the Civil War a profitable venture?

Harvest of Death

Timothy O' Sullivan. A Harvest of Death,
Gettysburg, PA
. 1863.

1869 Mathew Brady petitiond the U.S. government to purchase his archive for $125,000
After the government refused the purchase Brady went bankrupt and had to sell his portrait studio
In 1875 the government had a change of heart
and paid Brady $27,840
Brady died penniless in the charity ward of a NY hospital
 
Gardner also petitioned the government to buy his archive of negatives and was rejected
90,000 of Gardner's glass plate negatives were scrapped for the glass and silver

 

 

 

 

 

 

Social documentary style emerged in the 19th century in response to:
Popular social reform movements
Continued interest in recording the wonders of the world
Availability and accessibility of the hand-held camera

 

Organized social reform movements in America that began during the late 19th century:

Suffrage parade in New York City, May 6, 1912.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Feminist_Suffrage_Parade_in_New_York_City%2C_1912.jpeg

Abolitionism
Woman's Suffrage Movement
Prohibition/ Temperance Movement
Public Education Reform Movement
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacob Riis
1849 - 1914

 

Lewis Hine.  Immigrants Going Down Gangplank.  1905.
source unkown

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bandit's Roost

Jacob Riis. Bandits' Roost, New York. 1888.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1982.

 

muckraker = journalist who investigates and exposes societal issues

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italian Ragpicker

Jacob Riis. Home of an Italian Ragpicker, New York. 1888.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1982.

 

How the Other Half Lives

More Jacob Riis Photographs

 

 

 

 

Riis consistently argued that the "poor were the victims rather than the makers of their fate"

Jacob Riis.  Street Arabs.  c. 1880s.

 
Social Darwinism = belief that society's evolve like organisms and only the fit will survive, while the weak and unfit should be allowed to die and go extinct
An important aspect of this line of thinking was the belief that poverty was a just reward for sin
 
Social Uplift = belief that crime is an effect of poverty rather than the cause

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lewis Hine
1874 - 1940

 

Untitled

Lewis Hine. Untitled (Hickory, North Carolina). 1908.
20th Century Photography Museum Ludwig Cologne. Taschen, Koln, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spinner

Lewis Hine. Spinner in New England Mill . 1913.
Koetzle, Hans Michael.  Photo Icons:  The Story behind the Pictures.  Vol. 1. Taschen, Koln, 2002.

1907 government inquiry revealed that at least 1,750,178 children between 10 and 15 years old were working in US factories
 
In cotton mills, almost 50% of the workers were an average of 10 years old
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glassblowing Works

Lewis Hine. At Work at Glassblowing Works. 1909.
20th Century Photography Museum Ludwig Cologne. Taschen, Koln, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oyster Openers

Lewis Hine. Oyster Openers. 1913.
20th Century Photography Museum Ludwig Cologne. Taschen, Koln, 2005.

 

"Hine exposed the myth that everyone could pull themselves up by their bootstraps and succeed in America." - Hirsch

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steelworker 85 Stories Up

Lewis Hine. Steelworker, 85 Stories Up. c. 1931.

 

 

"There were two things I wanted to do. I wanted to show the things that had to be corrected; I wanted to show the things that had to be appreciated" - Lewis Hine

 

Lewis Hine's Men at Work series