The Daguerreotype

 

"It is hardly too much to say, that those whom we love no longer leave us in dying, as they did of old. They remain with us just as they appeared in life; they look down upon us from our walls; they lie upon our tables... But the unfading artificial retina which has looked upon them retains their impress, and a fresh sunbeam lays this on the living nerve as if it were radiated from the breathing shape. How these shadows last, and how their originals fade away!" - Sir Oliver Wendell Holmes
 
Southworth and Hawes. Young Girl. c. 1850.  Daguerreotype.
http://museum.icp.org/museum/exhibitions/southworth_hawes/images/pic_portrait_02.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1838
Daguerre hires Count Francois Arago, Secretary of the Academy of Sciences, to promote invention and secure copyright from government
1839
Hippolyte Bayard makes direct positives on sensitized paper
   
Exposes paper with silver chloride emulsion to light
Soaks paper in potassium iodide
Exposes paper in obscura about 12 minutes
Washes paper in bath of hyposulphite of soda
Bayard shows examples of prints to Count Arago
 
Arago pressures Bayard not to publish results of his experiments
Hippolyte Bayard.  Plaster Casts.  c. 1839.  Direct paper positive.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1982.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 9, 1839
Arago announces Daguerre's process to a joint session of the Academy of Science and the Academy of Fine Art
August 19, 1839
Daguerre's process publicly announced and Daguerre receives French patent
 
Daguerre receives lifetime pension from French government
 
Daguerre applies for English patent on the process
Daguerre claims full credit for the invention (Niepce goes unrecognized for years)
Niepce's son sues the government for compensation for his part in Daguerre's process
Count Francois Arago. Lithograph.
http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/hst/scientific-identity/CF/by_name_display_results.cfm?scientist=Arago,%20François
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre.  Triptych with three daguerreotypes presented to King Ludwig I of Bavaria.  1839.
Koetzle, Hans-Michael. Photo Icons: The Story Behind the Pictures. Volume 1. Koln: Taschen, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype camera

1839 Daguerreotype camera
http://theonlinephotographer.typepad.com/the_online_photographer/2010/05/index.html

 

1839 Daguerreotype Giroux sold for approximately $899,000 in 2010 making it the most expensive camera. Alphonse Giroux was the brother-in-law of Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
who manufactured the devices and sold them internationally.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Propylea

Pierre Gusttave Joly de Ltbiniere. The Propylaea at Athens. Aquatint engraving from a daguerreotype. 1839.
Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1982.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 1839
Bayard exhibits 30 of his direct positive prints in Paris

Self-portrait as Drowned Man

 
First public exhibition of photographic images
 
Bayard given small cash award
   
"The corpse you see is that of M. Bayard… The Academy, the King and all those who have seen his pictures admired them, just as you do… This has brought him prestige, but not a penny. The government, which has supported M. Daguerre more than is necessary, declared it could do nothing for M. Bayard, and the unhappy man drowned himself…he has been at the morgue for several days, and no one has recognized him. Ladies and gentlemen, you'd better pass along for fear of offending your sense of smell, for as you can observe, the face and hands of the gentleman are beginning to decay."
- Hippolyte Bayard
 
Hippolyte Bayard. Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man. 1840. Direct paper positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

more intrigue to come ...

 

Leaves and Orchids

William Henry Fox Talbot. Leaves and Orchids. 1839. Photogenic drawing.
http://rollfilm.wordpress.com/2007/03/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The daguerreotype, "the mirror with a memory."
- Sir Oliver Wendell Holmes
 
Properties of the daguerreotype:
Mirror view of the original scene
Shiny, mirror-like surface

Very delicate, one-of-a-kind direct positive image

 
 
Construction of a daguerreotype: hinged, velvet-lined case, plate, frame, matte, and glass.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype drawbacks:

Daguerre's first camera
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

Long exposure time
Beyond the average person's means
Cameras were large and cumbersome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By the end of 1840 three major improvements made:

Robert Cornelius

Cameras manufactured with better quality lens
More light-sensitive plates developed
Enriched tones of daguerreotype image with gilding
 
Robert Cornelius.  Self-Portrait. 1839.
first daguerreotype produced in U.S.?
http://z.about.com/d/inventors/1/0/8/N/daguerreotype.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype Mania

 

daguerreotype mania

1840
First commercial daguerreotype studios open in New York and Paris
1841
First studios in London
1860s
200 studios in New York and 400 in Paris
1865
284 studios in London
   
Theodore Maurisset. Fantasies: La Daguerreotypemanie. 1839.
http://www.shinyphotos.com/copy_images/daguerreotypomanie.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dagnan-Bouveret. Wedding at the Photographer's. 1879.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype apparatus

Daguerreotype studio apparatus
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.
Jenny Lind Headrest.  1851.
http://www.dagazine.com/mi/exhibit/setup/Awaiting03-05.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper

John Draper. Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper. c. 1840. Daguerreotype.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait Galleries

 

Nadar's Portrait Studio on the Boulevard des Capucines. 1860.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait Gallery

A. Berghaus. M. B. Brady's New Photographic Gallery,New York. 1861. Engraving.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rollin Heber Neal

Southworth and Hawes. Rollin Heber Neal
(Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Boston)
. c. 1850. Daguerreotype.

http://www.photomuse.org/media/database/00197.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dorothy Catheriene Draper

John Draper. Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper.  c.1840. Daguerreotype.
http://click.si.edu/Image.aspx?image=2931&story=226&back=Story
Southworth and Hawes. Rollin Heber Neal (Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Boston). c. 1850. Daguerreotype.

 

 

More Southworth and Hawes images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picture Factories

 

Behind the scenes in a picture factory.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype Saloons

 

Daguerrian Saloon

A traveling daguerrian studio or "Daguerreotype Saloon"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype saloon. c. 1850.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/DSlaneverro2.jpg

A picture's worth?
 
A professionally made daguerreotype cost one to two pounds in London - about a month's salary for the common person
In the United States, a daguerreotype made at the local studio cost $2.50 to $5

The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (1 5/8" X 1 3/8"), 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio.  Fifty cents, probably the most common price paid, is roughly $8.75 in 1991 dollars.

http://www.americandaguerreotypes.com/ch2.html

Southworth and Hawes charged $33 for a portrait (about $450 in today's money)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The blossoming popularity and accessibility of the daguerreotype greatly influenced the emergence of new classes of image makers, which then encouraged the development of new classes of images...

 

Occupation Portraits

 

Family Vegetable Woman

Carl Ferdinand Stelzner. Mother Albers, The Family Vegetable Woman. c. 1845. Daguerreotype.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

 

More occupational daguerreotypes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vacation Pictures

 

Platt D. Babbitt. Tourists Viewing Niagara Falls from Prospect Point. c. 1855.
http://click.si.edu/Image.aspx?image=6200&story=750&back=Story

 

 

More Tourist Daguerreotypes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Mortem Portraits

 

Post-Mortem Portrait

Unknown Photographer. Post-Mortem Portrait, Woman Holding Baby. c. 1855. Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photographer Unknown. Father and Mother Holding a Dead Child.  c. 1850 - 1860s.  Daguerreotype.
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pornography and Art?

 

Unknown. Two Nude Women Embracing.  c. 1848.  Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eugene Durieu.  Academie de l'Album Delacroix reunissant.  1853 - 54.  Paper print.
Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.